本文旨在给出一个教程样的概览,以便大家快速明了 Sphnix 如何使用, 点击绿色箭头的 “详细” 链接将进入对应操作的高级手册.
Sphnix 内置了一个脚本 sphinx-quickstart 可以自动生成默认的
并回答几个问题. (注意,对 “autodoc” 回答 Yes.)
同时还有个叫 sphinx-apidoc 自动”API文档”生成器， 参考 使用sphinx-apidoc .
假设你已经执行了 sphinx-quickstart. 已经创建包含
index.rst (如果你接受默认). 主控文档 的主函数是担任欢迎页面, 并包含了”table of contents tree”的根(or toctree). 这是Sphinx添加到reStructuredText主要事情之一, 连接多个文件到一层文档的方法.
.. toctree:: :maxdepth: 2
.. toctree:: :maxdepth: 2 intro tutorial ...
直接书写 文档名s ，不用写扩展，使用斜线来分割目录.
更多 toctree 指令.
You can now create the files you listed in the toctree and add content, and
their section titles will be inserted (up to the “maxdepth” level) at the place
where the toctree directive is placed. Also, Sphinx now knows about the order
and hierarchy of your documents. (They may contain
themselves, which means you can create deeply nested hierarchies if necessary.)
In Sphinx source files, you can use most features of standard reStructuredText.
There are also several features added by Sphinx. For example, you can add
cross-file references in a portable way (which works for all output types) using
For an example, if you are viewing the HTML version you can look at the source for this document – use the “Show Source” link in the sidebar.
添加文件和内容之后就可以创建docs了。使用程序 sphinx-build , 如下:
$ sphinx-build -b html sourcedir builddir
sourcedir 是 资源目录, builddir 存放创建文档的地方.
查看更多 sphinx-build使用 for all options that sphinx-build supports.
然而, sphinx-quickstart 创建了
make.bat 可以很容易的创建life: 如下
$ make html
to build HTML docs in the build directory you chose. Execute
an argument to see which targets are available.
How do I generate PDF documents?
make latexpdf runs the
LaTeX builder and readily invokes the pdfTeX
toolchain for you.
One of Sphinx’ main objectives is easy documentation of objects (in a very general sense) in any domain. A domain is a collection of object types that belong together, complete with markup to create and reference descriptions of these objects.
The most prominent domain is the Python domain. To e.g. document the Python
enumerate(), you would add this to one of your source
.. py:function:: enumerate(sequence[, start=0]) Return an iterator that yields tuples of an index and an item of the *sequence*. (And so on.)
This is rendered like this:
Return an iterator that yields tuples of an index and an item of the sequence. (And so on.)
The argument of the directive is the signature of the object you describe, the content is the documentation for it. Multiple signatures can be given, each in its own line.
The Python domain also happens to be the default domain, so you don’t need to prefix the markup with the domain name:
.. function:: enumerate(sequence[, start=0]) ...
does the same job if you keep the default setting for the default domain.
There are several more directives for documenting other types of Python objects,
py:method. There is also a
cross-referencing role for each of these object types. This markup will
create a link to the documentation of
The :py:func:`enumerate` function can be used for ...
And here is the proof: A link to
py: can be left out if the Python domain is the default one. It
doesn’t matter which file contains the actual documentation for
Sphinx will find it and create a link to it.
Each domain will have special rules for how the signatures can look like, and make the formatted output look pretty, or add specific features like links to parameter types, e.g. in the C/C++ domains.
See 域 for all the available domains and their directives/roles.
Earlier we mentioned that the
conf.py file controls how Sphinx processes
your documents. In that file, which is executed as a Python source file, you
assign configuration values. For advanced users: since it is executed by
Sphinx, you can do non-trivial tasks in it, like extending
importing a module to find out the version your are documenting.
The config values that you probably want to change are already put into the
conf.py by sphinx-quickstart and initially commented out
(with standard Python syntax: a
# comments the rest of the line). To change
the default value, remove the hash sign and modify the value. To customize a
config value that is not automatically added by sphinx-quickstart,
just add an additional assignment.
Keep in mind that the file uses Python syntax for strings, numbers, lists and so
on. The file is saved in UTF-8 by default, as indicated by the encoding
declaration in the first line. If you use non-ASCII characters in any string
value, you need to use Python Unicode strings (like
project = u'Exposé').
See 配置 for documentation of all available config values.
When documenting Python code, it is common to put a lot of documentation in the source files, in documentation strings. Sphinx supports the inclusion of docstrings from your modules with an extension (an extension is a Python module that provides additional features for Sphinx projects) called “autodoc”.
In order to use autodoc, you need to activate it in
conf.py by putting
'sphinx.ext.autodoc' into the list assigned to the
extensions config value. Then, you have a few additional directives
at your disposal.
For example, to document the function
io.open(), reading its
signature and docstring from the source file, you’d write this:
.. autofunction:: io.open
You can also document whole classes or even modules automatically, using member options for the auto directives, like
.. automodule:: io :members:
autodoc needs to import your modules in order to extract the docstrings.
Therefore, you must add the appropriate path to
sys.path in your
sphinx.ext.autodoc for the complete description of the
features of autodoc.